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Cryptocurrency News & Discussion

The official source for CryptoCurrency News, Discussion & Analysis.

Knowledge check

I understand that most analogies that attempt to explain blockchain/bitcoin will be inherently incomplete/flawed since the technology is so new, but I still think they are critical for new participants to get a grasp on what’s happening, at least for me personally.
Hoping to get some help as I am having trouble synthesizing a few concepts:
My understanding is that all transactions are broadcast to the network. Initially I thought the distributed ledger was analogous to 4 individuals playing monopoly. Instead of having a banker, each player writes down whenever a transaction takes place. This particular analogy lead me to believe transactions were recorded in real time (a player shouts out their transaction and immediately all players record the transaction).
Learning about the proof of work lottery required me to tweak my understanding a bit. (Except in the case of forking) I gather that only one individual in the entire network is mining a block (recording transactions) at any given time? Not sure if this is true, but assuming it is, that person records transactions in time sequential order (or so I thought). Somehow a public and private key are involved here: I decided a public and private key are analogous to a username and password (I think this is grossly over simplified). Anyway, providing the password that corresponds with your username allows you to conduct transactions (digital signature). There is some validation of each transaction before the transaction reaches the miner (mechanisms here are unclear).
As stated above, I was initially under the impression that the miner is recording transactions in time sequential order, but then I remembered transactions fees. This lead me to think of transaction fees like bidding on eBay: the higher transaction fee you pay moves your transaction to the top of the list. Therefore transactions are not recorded in real time.
When your block is full (is there a certain GB limit?) the network validates that everything checks out. You get a lil piece of the action (deposit of transactions fees and a reward for mining a block into your wallet). The proof of work lottery begins again.
Two unanswered questions remain:
  1. Is the proof of work lottery “paused” while someone is actively mining a block?
  2. I have become exposed to the idea of mining and non mining nodes... what exactly is a non mining node? Someone who conducts (and validates) transactions but doesn’t play in the proof of work lottery? Or just pretty much everyone who owns bitcoin but is not set up for mining?
Very grateful to anyone who can check my understanding. Most of what I've learned comes from the ebook Inventing Bitcoin, this Hackernoon article that dives a bit deeper into validation, and this 3Blue1brown Youtube video that provides a high level review of foundational concepts. In addition I've been watching the Khan Academy series on Bitcoin, and listening to the Unchained podcast pretty religiously, however since I still feel uncertain on these introductory topics, I feel like I can't be totally engaged with new content.
submitted by oswizzle to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Nuvmining | What Is Bitcoin, How Is It Various Than "Real" Cash and also How Can I Get Some?

Bitcoin is a digital money. It does not exist in the kind of physical type that the currency & coin we're used to exist in. It does not even exist in a type as physical as Syndicate cash. It's electrons - not molecules.
nuv mining
Yet consider just how much cash you directly handle. You obtain an income that you require to the bank - or it's autodeposited without you even seeing the paper that it's not printed on. You after that utilize a debit card (or a checkbook, if you're old school) to access those funds. At finest, you see 10% of it in a money form in your pocket or in your pocketbook. So, it turns out that 90% of the funds that you take care of are online - electrons in a spreadsheet or data source.
However delay - those are UNITED STATE funds (or those of whatever nation you come from), safe in the financial institution and also ensured by the complete belief of the FDIC approximately about $250K per account, right? Well, not exactly. Your banks might just called for to maintain 10% of its deposits on down payment. In some cases, it's much less. It offers the rest of your cash bent on other individuals for approximately thirty years. It charges them for the funding, and also costs you for the advantage of letting them offer it out.
Just how does money obtain developed?
Your financial institution reaches produce money by offering it out.
State you deposit $1,000 with your bank. They then lend out $900 of it. Unexpectedly you have $1000 as well as another person has $900. Magically, there's $1900 floating around where prior to there was only a grand.
Currently claim your bank instead offers 900 of your dollars to another financial institution. That financial institution in turn lends $810 to an additional financial institution, which after that offers $720 to a client. Poof! $3,430 in an immediate - virtually $2500 produced out of nothing - as long as the bank follows your federal government's central bank rules.
Production of Bitcoin is as different from bank funds' creation as cash money is from electrons. It is not managed by a government's reserve bank, but rather by consensus of its customers as well as nodes. It is not developed by a restricted mint in a structure, however rather by dispersed open source software program and computer. As well as it needs a type of real work for production. Extra on that particular shortly.
Who created BitCoin?
The very first BitCoins remained in a block of 50 (the "Genesis Block") created by Satoshi Nakomoto in January 2009. It really did not really have any type of worth initially. It was simply a cryptographer's toy based on a paper published two months earlier by Nakomoto. Nakotmoto is an evidently imaginary name - nobody appears to know that she or he or they is/are.
That monitors everything?
Once the Genesis Block was developed, BitCoins have actually because been produced by doing the work of keeping track of all deals for all BitCoins as a kind of public journal. The nodes/ computers doing the computations on the journal are awarded for doing so. For each collection of effective calculations, the node is rewarded with a specific quantity of BitCoin (" BTC"), which are after that freshly produced right into the BitCoin community. For this reason the term, "BitCoin Miner" - because the procedure develops new BTC. As the supply of BTC increases, and also as the number of transactions boosts, the job essential to update the public ledger gets harder and also much more complicated. As a result, the variety of new BTC right into the system is created to be concerning 50 BTC (one block) every 10 minutes, worldwide.
Although the computer power for mining BitCoin (as well as for upgrading the public ledger) is currently boosting exponentially, so is the intricacy of the mathematics problem (which, incidentally, additionally needs a certain amount of thinking), or "evidence" needed to mine BitCoin as well as to settle the transactional publications at any type of provided moment. So the system still only generates one 50 BTC block every 10 minutes, or 2106 blocks every 2 weeks.
So, in a sense, everyone tracks it - that is, all the nodes in the network keep track of the background of every single BitCoin.
Just how much is there and also where is it?
There is a maximum variety of BitCoin that can ever before be produced, and that number is 21 million. According to the Khan Academy, the number is anticipated to peak around the year 2140.
Since, today there were 12.1 million BTC in flow
Your very own BitCoin are kept in a documents (your BitCoin purse) in your very own storage space - your computer system. The data itself is evidence of the number of BTC you have, and also it can move with you on a mobile phone.
If that data with the cryptographic key in your wallet obtains lost, so does your supply of BitCoin funds. And also you can't obtain it back.
Just how much is it worth?
The value differs based on just how much people believe it deserves - similar to in the exchange of "real cash." Yet due to the fact that there is no central authority trying to maintain the value around a certain level, it can vary a lot more dynamically. The very first BTC were generally worth absolutely nothing at the time, however those BTC still exist. Since 11AM on December 11, 2013, the general public value was $906.00 United States per BitCoin. When I completed composing this sentence, it was $900.00. Around the start of 2013, the value was around $20.00 United States. On November 27, 2013 it was valued at greater than $1,000.00 United States per BTC. So it's kind of unstable presently, yet it's expected to calm down.
The complete value of all BitCoin - since the period at the end of this sentence - is around 11 billion US bucks.
How can I get me some?
First, you have to have a BitCoin purse. This post has links to get one.
Then one method is to purchase some from one more private party, like these individuals on Bloomberg TV. One method is to purchase some on an exchange, like Mt. Gox.
As well as finally, one means is to dedicate a lot of computer power as well as power to the process as well as become a BitCoin miner. That's well outside the extent of this post. However if you have a couple of thousand extra dollars lying around, you can obtain rather a gear.
Exactly how can I spend it?
There are numerous vendors of all sizes that take BitCoin in payment, from cafes to auto dealers. There's also a BitCoin ATM in Vancouver, British Columbia for transforming your BTC to cash in Vancouver, BC.
And so?
Money has had a lengthy background - centuries in size. Somewhat recent tale tells us that Manhattan Island was bought for wampum - seashells & the like. In the very early years of the United States, different financial institutions printed their own money. On a recent visit to Salt Spring Island in British Columbia, I invested currency that was just good on the beautiful island. The common style among these was a trust agreement amongst its customers that specific currency held value. In some cases that worth was tied directly to something strong and physical, like gold. In 1900 the U.S. connected its currency straight to gold (the "Gold Requirement") and in 1971, ended that tie.
Currently money is traded like any kind of various other commodity, although a certain nation's currency worth can be propped up or decreased through activities of their reserve bank. BitCoin is an alternative money that is also traded as well as its value, like that of various other products, is figured out via trade, yet is not stood up or lessened by the action of any kind of bank, however rather straight by the activities of its individuals. Its supply is minimal as well as known nevertheless, and also (unlike physical money) so is the history of each and every single BitCoin. Its viewed worth, like all various other money, is based on its utility and also count on.
As a form of currency, BitCoin not specifically a new thing in Production, however it absolutely is a new means for cash to be created.
submitted by Nuvmining to u/Nuvmining [link] [comments]

⟳ 870 apps added, 78 updated at

Notice: this update is spurious, and the issue is being looked at.
⟳ from Wed, 26 Feb 2020 20:21:50 GMT updated on Sun, 01 Mar 2020 05:23:29 GMT contains 2962 apps.
Added (870)
Updated (78)
submitted by BrainstormBot to FDroidUpdates [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - November 2018

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the 23rd monthly Bitcoin news recap.
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on
A recap of Bitcoin in November 2018
Regulation & Politics
Archeology (Financial Incumbents)
Price & Trading
Fun & Other
Congratulations Bitcoin on about to be 1 Million subscribers! See you next month!
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Request Khan Academy to make a course on Bitcoin.

Has anyone requested to Professors to give classes on bitcoin? Many people need help to understand in a classroom type of setting what bitcoins are, especially someone they are already familiar with like Khan. This would definitely help make bitcoins more mainstream to the populace. What are your thoughts? I wrote them an email already, lets get those emails to them. You should title the email something like this, "Bitcoin course request." Anything like that would definitely be helpful. Thanks.
They already have a way to facilitate this, use that link I gave.
submitted by ThomisticCajetan to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Would like some help and input on my phone and windows computer setup :)

(English is not my native language but I'll try to define my desires as clear as possible, and finding it hard to turn this post in a perfectly coherent story, just so you know :) I'm trying my best not to go off topic as much as I can but sometimes I feel the need to say things to clarify my desires)

I bought a galaxy s10 Plus a while ago and before setting it up and cleaning my online clutter I decided to read up more about privacy, security, open source, google, tracking and so forth. And then the journey began! :P I'm processing all of the info I read and watched the last months but I find it's hard to take every little detail into consideration and make the perfect decision for everything haha. So I'm kind of stuck now in the sense that I want to set everything up but don't know exactly what is the correct order to do things not to mess up and whats the right setup for me.
So the question(s) arose; What is my personal desire in terms of privacy and security. And what is the setup for me so I can have the right balance between convenience, productivity, privacy and security online. What is attainable and what is not.
For me all of this has to do with trust, what people, organizations, institutions, companies can you trust with your information. If we lived in a world where we can trust that other people have the best intentions for everyone around them and are committed to creating a world of freedom, love, safety and trust and are committed to lift the human spirit and give the support to let it reach it's ultimate potential most of these precautions or worries would not be necessary, unfortunately we don't (at the moment) so we have to take some measures.

Most important for me:
- Keep my bank details safe, bitcoin, creditcard information and so forth. (My creditcard have been scammed once, dont want this to happen again)
- Keeping my internet searches private
- Keeping my communication private
- Having the right balance between privacy and security. Do I choose to download using google play so the chances are bigger I download apps that are not infected, or do I choose to get rid of google play and take a certain risk.
- Being able to use my phone without being paranoid about of worrying about everyone and everything constantly tracking me, listening to me and so forth.
It's a very intense and crazy time we are living in at the moment but I don't want to let the paranoid mindset taking hold of my life again like it used to do. I see people taking extreme measures to ensure maximum security or privacy and admire them for that but that's not my final goal.
I would like to have a setup that I feel that I have done the things I could do to "maximize" my privacy, anonymity, security, and productivity without getting too paranoid and stressed out over minor things.

I've concluded a few things in this process:
  1. What I don't have control over.
People who have malicious intent trying to get their hands on private and or sensitive personal information.

  1. What I do and have control over.
Details I consciously share with other people; details about my personal private life like my emotional state, sensitive information, photos and so forth. Online and offline, this is all up to me to decide how and what I share.
Details I share online like credit-card information, bank details, email addresses, passwords, usernames and so forth.
Doing my best in taking the necessary steps to prevent the people who have malicious intent getting their hands on my personal and sensitive information and I want to able to trust some people and companies with my information.

Question for myself which I have not been able to answer myself yet: Do I really want to get rid of google entirely and live with the consequences (and what are the consequences exactly?) The main reason I want to limit the use of google services is because I don't want them to have all the information about me readily available to them. Contacts, passwords, photos, emails, messages, location, knowledge of all the apps I'm using, knowledge of all the places I have accounts with, all of my search history and so forth.
It's about me personally but above all like for the most of you all its about the fact that companies like Google and Facebook are changing the way people behave, feel, think, act or not act, the opinions they have, their outlook on life, their beliefs, their hopes, their fears and so forth. For the good and for the bad. So a step in the direction of providing them only the information that I think is for the betterment of human potential feels like the right step.
I have a lot of questions and/or concerns and have been looking for answers or solutions myself for a while now, some things I figured out but some I'm just going to ask to see if you have an answer for me personally, or ask me critical questions so I can be more clear on what I want and why. Some/most questions I ask here I've been trying to find an answesolution to but haven't found it yet.

Things I want to do and/or have questions about and/or want some tips/input on:
- I have a windows computer and want to make a clean install and reinstall all the software I need.
- I bought a new galaxy s10 plus and want to uninstall some pre-installed bloatware using ADB and Fastboot. What to do, what not to do.

- What is your view on finding the balance between convenience, anonymity, privacy, security and productivity.

- What are good/trusted sources to download apps?
- Is Google play keeping track of all the apps you use in terms of usage duration, when and where you are using them and so forth?
- Is it better to use Google play to download apps in terms of security opposed to using apps like aurora to bypass google play?
- I think I need Google play to download some apps like banking apps. Is it better to download these apps through google play so you have less change of installing malicious apps?
- How does it work when you have google play installed on your phone and also use apps like aurora to download apps. Because when you download apps with aurora they also show up as installed apps in your google play app.
- When and why its okay to use Google apps/services. Can you guys give me your opinion on the do's and don'ts with google?

- I'm new to bitcoin and started to use Trustwallet. This was recommended by a friend of mine. Any tips on security around bitcoin?
- Some tips on storing my phone contacts.
- Tips on privacy around apps like todoist, Notion, journaling apps, habit trackers and so forth.
- I'm using my phone as a Wifi Hotspot because I have an unlimited data plan and speeds are reasonable. So don't really need a fixed ISP. I'm not a gamer and I don't need to download large amounts of data. Any tips on security measures?

- Can you trust sites like APKpure to download apps if I were to choose not to use google play?
- What is your opinion about using YouTube. I have a YouTube premium account at the moment, mostly because of the listen to audio with screen off function, to not have ads and to be able to organize and access my viewed content easily. I know there are apps that give you without needing a premium account?

Things I have already done/ I already do:
- Shifting/shifted from Gmail ( which I never used in the first place) and live mail to a Proton mail account with different mail addresses for different purposes.
- Using Firefox with ABP, Lastpass, ghostery, duckduck go.
- Logging in to my online accounts with a protonmail adress and have strong different passwords for each one of them.
- Being aware of what permissions I give to what apps in terms of microphone usage, camera usage, access to contacts, location and so forth.
- Using the online platform instead of apps for ordering products online

Things I'm going to do/would like to do or would like to have:
- Stop using google drive/photos and delete all my files. I know they will keep the data forever but seems like a good idea do delete it from my account anyway.
- Delete my facebook account.
- Find alternatives to google services.
- Would like to have a good calendar app, waiting for Proton calendar to see if it meets my requirements.
- A trusted storage cloud. I'm looking at Tresorit.
- Using IP Vanish atm but looking at MullvadVPN

Few things I have figured out for myself :

Any tips on how and what to uninstall and what to look out for? Is it possible to delete the whole google section from Android settings?

Apps I would like to have on my phone (please share your tips/insights on why or why not to have these apps or tips on alternative apps) :

- Torbot
- Firefox with Ghostery. DDG, ABP

- Proton-mail
- Signal
- Whatsapp

Productivity, time management and personal development:
- Scanbot
- Todoist ( to do list application I really like, I've read the privacy policy and deciding for myself what for, how and why i want to use it and what information I trust the company with)
- Notion ( App to create your personal dashboard and help you be more productive, I've read the privacy policy and deciding for myself what for, how and why I want to use it and what information I trust the company with )
- Note Taking App (Trying Orgzly atm)

- Lastpass
- VPN Service

App "store":
- Aurora
- F Droid
- Google play?

- Shazam
- Spotify
- Soundcloud

- Reddit
- Quora

- Trustwallet
- Personal Banking Apps
- Paypal

- Udemy
- Skillshare
- Khan academy
- Audible
- Youtube app

- A third party keyboard (was using Swiftkey but concerned about privacy issues)
- A navigation app ( trying atm)
- A weather app

I might have missed a few points but I'll come back later to review my post:)
Thanks in advance for your time and input!
submitted by EdEddandEddy78 to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

/r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

Welcome To The /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

Maybe you're here because you've received a tip on social media, or maybe you've just been hearing a lot recently about Bitcoin and are wondering what the big deal is? The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little bit about its long term potential:

What are Bitcoins worth and where can I buy them?

Bitcoins are valued at what market price people are willing to pay for them. Here are a couple useful sites 1 and 2 that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (from as little as $1 worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank account. Some recommendations include:
US & Europe
All countries
Always do your own personal due diligence on the validity of an exchange and check the URL prior to sending them money or entering login credentials. Phishing sites are not uncommon. Use this checklist if you aren't sure which exchange to choose.

Where can I spend Bitcoins?

A comprehensive list can be found at but some of the key ones are below:
Store Product
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit and The Bitcoin Shop Search engines of online retailers accepting bitcoin with millions of results
Overstock Everything under the sun
Gyft Gift cards for thousands of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, etc.
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
NewEgg, TigerDirect and Dell For all your electronic needs
Expedia, Cheapair and 9flats For when you need to get away
Wordpress, Namecheap, Mullvad and PIA Handy web services
Foodler and Takeaway Takeout delivered to your door!
HumbleBundle and GreenmanGaming For when you need to get your game on
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. UK residents can find a comprehensive directory of shops, pubs, websites and other places in the UK that accept bitcoins at
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, Red Cross and the RNLI. You can find a longer list here.

Merchant Resources

If you operate a business and want to accept bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available:

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun hobby but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The friendly folks at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network, you can run a full node by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions. Here is a handy setup guide

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can be your own bank and personally secure your bitcoins or you can use trusted companies such as Coinbase and Circle which have secured wallets where they hold the bitcoins for you and provide insurance. Be sure to only deal with reputable companies, if you have any concerns about a company's trustworthiness just ask or check their consumer reviews and ratings.
If you prefer to have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party you can use personal wallets for desktops / laptops, Android and iOS where you alone hold your private keys. Electrum, Mycelium and Breadwallet are popular, but there are many options.
Find a wallet that works best for you
For increased security use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! (2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access). Google Authenticator and Authy are two great apps for handling 2FA.
Additional security systems such as Mycelium Entropy (for printing multi-signature paper wallets) and the Trezor Hardware Wallet are great ways to easily secure your coins. Or, you can opt to secure your bitcoin using cold storage.
Note: Do not use brainwallets unless you are an expert, they are known to be vulnerable to theft unless set up correctly.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can earn bitcoins by working for them. Here are a few resources for bitcoin jobs.


Bitcoin Units

Note: This is a brief overview to the most commonly used Bitcoin units. For full information check out the Bitcoin Units wiki (work in progress).
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common ones are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (ml) or millimeter (mm)
microbitcoin μBTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μl) or micrometre (μm)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
Still have questions? The friendly folks at /BitcoinBeginners would be happy to help you out. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending mod approval. The original sticky can still be found here.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BashCo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: AskEconomics posts from 2018-07-29 to 2018-10-19 16:52 PDT

Period: 82.20 days
Submissions Comments
Total 984 6990
Rate (per day) 11.97 84.00
Unique Redditors 705 1188
Combined Score 5816 20552

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 240 points, 28 submissions: benjaminikuta
    1. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? (69 points, 12 comments)
    2. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? (61 points, 24 comments)
    3. What would be a better alternative to Bernie's proposal to tax employers of welfare recipients? (15 points, 68 comments)
    4. What's happening right now with the agriculture industry in South Africa? (15 points, 3 comments)
    5. To what degree is planned obsolescence due to consumer behavior, rather than the other way around? (12 points, 1 comment)
    6. Why do changes in bitcoin price and mining difficulty not have a greater effect on the amount of mining being done? (8 points, 7 comments)
    7. How effectively can negative externalities be quantified? (7 points, 7 comments)
    8. What exactly is "Capitalism" anyway? (7 points, 17 comments)
    9. Are open source projects, such as VLC, subject to market forces? (6 points, 7 comments)
    10. What happened to the agricultural industry in South Africa? (6 points, 0 comments)
  2. 168 points, 37 submissions: Whynvme
    1. When economists refer to industrialization, does it mean a move from agricultural to manufacturing economy? Is the growth in services a different term? (24 points, 6 comments)
    2. Do economists actually calculate consumer surplus empirically, or is it more of s theoretical concept? (19 points, 5 comments)
    3. Does employees of a company with a relatively inelastic demand have an incentive not to care too much? (13 points, 9 comments)
    4. why is ceteris paribus important for analyzing/thinking about the world? (12 points, 7 comments)
    5. Is me making more money than I would necessarily require to work( so more than my 'opportunity wage') for a job an economic inefficiency? or is ineffiency in labor markets a wedge between my marginal revenue product and my wage? (11 points, 3 comments)
    6. With a land value tax, since the supply of land is perfectly inelastic(or less elastic than demand), would theory suggest land owners will pay most of the tax? (10 points, 4 comments)
    7. Are policies such as the gov creating jobs that arent necessary(like gas station attendants) an example of the Broken window fallacy? (7 points, 7 comments)
    8. what is meant by value added? (7 points, 3 comments)
    9. Question about planned economies without price mechanism and forced labor (5 points, 2 comments)
    10. Why does inflation necessarily mean wages will be increasing too? (5 points, 3 comments)
  3. 116 points, 10 submissions: pattersonisagamer
    1. Why do economists believe rent control policies harm the poor instead of carrying out the intent and helping them out greatly? (49 points, 26 comments)
    2. Under Sen Sanders (I-VT) single payer healthcare system he guarantees the average family would pay $466/year on healthcare. Is this true/possible? Would you favor this policy? (27 points, 46 comments)
    3. What is a good type of internship for an undergrad summer going into senior year? (11 points, 6 comments)
    4. What would the economic effect be if the United States removed its $7.25/hr minimum wage? Would you support this? Why/why not? (10 points, 21 comments)
    5. How can you tell if someone's preferences are convex? (7 points, 11 comments)
    6. What is quantitative easing and how does it differ from normal actions taken by the Fed? (4 points, 19 comments)
    7. Is it true that you can make decent money out of college as an independent financial advisor with a BS in Economics/other independent, self employed jobs? (3 points, 6 comments)
    8. What exactly is a negative income tax? Would you support implementing this policy? (3 points, 8 comments)
    9. Carbon tax in the USA? (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. Should we have a central bank? (0 points, 3 comments)
  4. 92 points, 9 submissions: Fart_Gas
    1. Is free public transport a good idea? (44 points, 23 comments)
    2. Will Venezuela's plummeting economy make it a good choice for low-wage industries? (18 points, 8 comments)
    3. Why do some countries without hyperinflation use a foreign currency in everyday life? (10 points, 3 comments)
    4. What might cause sudden inflation? (7 points, 2 comments)
    5. Has any country tried reducing the minimum wage, and ended up with a good result from it? (4 points, 9 comments)
    6. How could ranchers and meat-dependent countries adjust to a world that is switching away from meat due to environmental and health concerns? (3 points, 7 comments)
    7. What is the cause of Taiwan's economic failure? (3 points, 1 comment)
    8. How come rationing in the UK during World War II went rather smoothly? (2 points, 4 comments)
    9. Do boycotts really work? (1 point, 3 comments)
  5. 84 points, 8 submissions: Serpenthrope
    1. Have there been any serious proposals for economic systems that don't use money? (24 points, 67 comments)
    2. Pockets in women's clothing (18 points, 30 comments)
    3. Is there a formal name for this? (16 points, 6 comments)
    4. Could a company ever become quality-control for a market in which they're competing, assuming no government interference? (15 points, 4 comments)
    5. I saw this article on a UN report calling for the dismantling of Capitalism to stop Global Warming, and was wondering what most economists think of the claims? (3 points, 4 comments)
    6. What would the economic impact be if the Extended Family returns? (3 points, 3 comments)
    7. Why are second-hand clothing donations fundamentally different from other types of imports? (3 points, 1 comment)
    8. Peter Navarro and Lyndon Larouche? (2 points, 1 comment)
  6. 80 points, 2 submissions: MrDannyOcean
    1. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics (68 points, 135 comments)
    2. The new rules for AskEconomics are now in place. Please see the details within. (12 points, 17 comments)
  7. 58 points, 8 submissions: Jollygood156
    1. Why didn't quantitative easing + low interest rates raise inflation high? (20 points, 36 comments)
    2. How do we actually refute MMT? (11 points, 68 comments)
    3. Tax Cuts boost Consumption, but the growth is short term while investments are long term. Why? (11 points, 7 comments)
    4. What is Nominal GDP targeting and why do so many people advocate for it? (6 points, 16 comments)
    5. How exactly are land value taxes calculated? (5 points, 3 comments)
    6. What even is Austerity? (3 points, 3 comments)
    7. During the time of economic upswing is it good to look to balance the budget or run a surplus? (1 point, 7 comments)
    8. How do we know that money is neutral in the longrun? (1 point, 22 comments)
  8. 52 points, 11 submissions: lalze123
    1. Will Bernie's "STOP BEZOS" plan lower the opportunity cost of hiring non-poor workers, thereby harming poor workers? (19 points, 15 comments)
    2. What does the current economic literature say about the effects of net neutrality? (12 points, 0 comments)
    3. What government programs have been empirically proven to help displaced workers from import competition? (5 points, 0 comments)
    4. By how much does lowering the budget deficit lower the trade deficit? (4 points, 4 comments)
    5. How much revenue would a negative income tax require? (3 points, 3 comments)
    6. How would replacing the minimum wage with a negative income tax turn out? (3 points, 4 comments)
    7. Is it possible for advertisements to have signaling effects that are detrimental? (3 points, 3 comments)
    8. Can you have a negative income tax system without inherent tax mechanisms? (1 point, 1 comment)
    9. What are some good studies analyzing the difference in efficiency between markets and central planning? (1 point, 1 comment)
    10. Would economists prefer bilateral/multilateral free trade agreements or unilateral free trade? (1 point, 4 comments)
  9. 48 points, 6 submissions: CanadianAsshole1
    1. If free trade is so good, then why do countries insist on making trade deals? Why can't we just abolish all tariffs? (17 points, 11 comments)
    2. Does the wage gap still exist after controlling for factors like education, career choice, and hours worked (13 points, 39 comments)
    3. Do I understand the problem with"trickle-down" economics correctly? (8 points, 38 comments)
    4. If climate change is such a huge problem, then why aren't countries utilizing nuclear energy more? (6 points, 17 comments)
    5. How much of the Reagan administration's deficits could be attributed to increased defense spending? (3 points, 3 comments)
    6. If automation will result in less jobs, then shouldn't the government stop incentivizing childbirth through tax credits and stop immigration? (1 point, 12 comments)
  10. 48 points, 1 submission: Traveledfarwestward
    1. What do most Economists think about The Economist? (48 points, 26 comments)
  11. 46 points, 8 submissions: Chumbaka
    1. Why is inflation and deflation bad? (12 points, 8 comments)
    2. Can a monopoly also be a monopsony? (10 points, 13 comments)
    3. Can anyone explain why this happens and what it means? (10 points, 3 comments)
    4. Stupid question but : Why does printing lots of money lead to inflation? (5 points, 14 comments)
    5. What do you think of Khan's Academy Economy lessons? (4 points, 2 comments)
    6. What does this stock market fall mean to the economy as a whole? (4 points, 4 comments)
    7. How would an universal free market deal with situations like NK? (1 point, 21 comments)
    8. How do I pick an economist ideology to support? (0 points, 3 comments)
  12. 46 points, 2 submissions: prman222
    1. What is the difference in knowledge between academic economists(Krugman, Acemoglu, Mankiw etc) and hedge fund managers and the like(Soros, James Simons)? (44 points, 5 comments)
    2. is a recession likely to come by 2020? (2 points, 11 comments)
  13. 46 points, 1 submission: TheHoleInMoi
    1. Are there any papers/solid arguments about the benefits of having more local business as opposed to corporate consolidation? (46 points, 2 comments)
  14. 44 points, 1 submission: Akehc99
    1. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? (44 points, 27 comments)
  15. 44 points, 1 submission: piltonpfizerwallace
    1. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? (44 points, 30 comments)
  16. 43 points, 2 submissions: ConditionalDew
    1. How much would the iPhone be if it was made in the US? (41 points, 15 comments)
    2. Who are some famous people/celebrities that were economics majors? (2 points, 2 comments)
  17. 42 points, 1 submission: Turnt_Up_For_What
    1. You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy? (42 points, 24 comments)
  18. 42 points, 1 submission: rangerlinks
    1. Who are the best economist to follow on Twitter? (42 points, 16 comments)
  19. 41 points, 5 submissions: TeaRev1ew
    1. Is there any basis to the theoretic economics of Anarchism? Could such a system work outside of coffee shops/other low level enterprises? (15 points, 18 comments)
    2. Are sovereign wealth funds a new phenomenon? (12 points, 1 comment)
    3. How do state funded enterprises lead to corruption? Is there a difference between developed and developing nations (or a patron-client relationship)? (6 points, 11 comments)
    4. How does releasing a new currency curb inflation in the era of fiat? (5 points, 5 comments)
    5. How do companies do business in states where their government doesn't recognize the sovereign entity? (3 points, 1 comment)
  20. 36 points, 1 submission: JeffGotSwags
    1. What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background? (36 points, 34 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. BainCapitalist (2631 points, 654 comments)
  2. RobThorpe (864 points, 280 comments)
  3. zzzzz94 (719 points, 147 comments)
  4. Calvo_fairy (715 points, 198 comments)
  5. smalleconomist (605 points, 179 comments)
  6. Cross_Keynesian (489 points, 94 comments)
  7. bbqroast (458 points, 103 comments)
  8. penguin_rider222 (428 points, 128 comments)
  9. riggorous (330 points, 115 comments)
  10. Integralds (326 points, 65 comments)
  11. whyrat (314 points, 68 comments)
  12. MrDannyOcean (248 points, 42 comments)
  13. isntanywhere (201 points, 64 comments)
  14. RedditUser91805 (179 points, 30 comments)
  15. emeraldcity27 (161 points, 8 comments)
  16. CapitalismAndFreedom (143 points, 66 comments)
  17. raptorman556 (142 points, 34 comments)
  18. LucasCritique (132 points, 30 comments)
  19. lawrencekhoo (129 points, 19 comments)
  20. roboczar (120 points, 21 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? by benjaminikuta (69 points, 12 comments)
  2. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics by MrDannyOcean (68 points, 135 comments)
  3. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? by benjaminikuta (61 points, 24 comments)
  4. Why do economists believe rent control policies harm the poor instead of carrying out the intent and helping them out greatly? by pattersonisagamer (49 points, 26 comments)
  5. What do most Economists think about The Economist? by Traveledfarwestward (48 points, 26 comments)
  6. Are there any papers/solid arguments about the benefits of having more local business as opposed to corporate consolidation? by TheHoleInMoi (46 points, 2 comments)
  7. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? by piltonpfizerwallace (44 points, 30 comments)
  8. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? by Akehc99 (44 points, 27 comments)
  9. Is free public transport a good idea? by Fart_Gas (44 points, 23 comments)
  10. What is the difference in knowledge between academic economists(Krugman, Acemoglu, Mankiw etc) and hedge fund managers and the like(Soros, James Simons)? by prman222 (44 points, 5 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 124 points: emeraldcity27's comment in Why do economists believe rent control policies harm the poor instead of carrying out the intent and helping them out greatly?
  2. 74 points: BainCapitalist's comment in What would happen if the US corporate income tax was abolished?
  3. 56 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Could someone explain the wage gap and whether it's a myth or not.
  4. 56 points: RedditUser91805's comment in The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be?
  5. 55 points: TheBellmanHimself's comment in Why is the Soviet Union generally considered to be a "failure"?
  6. 55 points: hbtn's comment in Why are Little Caesar's cheese pizzas the same price as its pepperoni pizzas?
  7. 54 points: arctigos's comment in What do most Economists think about The Economist?
  8. 49 points: sethg's comment in Why do economists believe rent control policies harm the poor instead of carrying out the intent and helping them out greatly?
  9. 47 points: RedditUser91805's comment in You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy?
  10. 47 points: smalleconomist's comment in What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Bitcoin 2017 a Comprehensive Timeline

Some of the most notable news and events over the past year:
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submitted by BitcoinChronicler to btc [link] [comments]

Hilo General de Bitcoin, despues del Hardfork, viene la evolución.

Hilo continuación del que venimos, para postear opiniones y noticias que no merecen hilo propio. Iré modificándolo poco a poco para dejarlo bien.
[QUOTE=Sr.Mojón;18954032][B][SIZE="5"]Hilo Oficial del Bitcoin[/SIZE][/B] [SIZE="5"][B][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Green"]XI Edition[/COLOR][/SIZE][/B][/SIZE]
[I][SIZE="1"][COLOR="Gray"]100% genuine, original, unadulterated bitcoin, madafakas. Contraindicado y no apto para cardíacos o si usted padece del corazón[/COLOR][/SIZE][/I]
[B][SIZE="3"]Cotización en tiempo real[/SIZE][/B] [IMG][/IMG]
[SIZE="4"][B]Venimos de...[/B][/SIZE] [url][/url] [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (IX)[/url] - 07-nov-2015 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (VIII)[/url] - 27-jul-2015 - [I][COLOR="Gray"](retornado del exilio político)[/COLOR][/I] [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (VII)[/url] - 13-ene-2015 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (VI)[/url] - 14-ene-2014 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (V)[/url] - 27-nov-2013 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (IV)[/url] - 24-oct-2013 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (III)[/url] - 22-abr-2013 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (II)[/url] - 11-abr-2013 [url=""]Hilo oficial del Bitcoin (I)[/url] - 06-mar-2013 [URL=""]Guía para el absoluto novato en Bitcoin[/URL] - 02-jul-2011
[I]*En estos hilos hay gráficas y noticias de sus respectivas fechas.[/I]
[SIZE="4"][B]¿Que coño es bitcoin?[/B][/SIZE] [YOUTUBE]ceef71b0zSo[/YOUTUBE]
Los cimientos de BITCOIN: [youtube]ZDNZTiCtbIY[/youtube]
Ejemplo visual de una BlokChain: [url][/url]
[B][URl] [/url] >>> What da FAQ oficial full nodo [url][/url] VPN [url][/url] [url][/url]
[B]Dificultad[/B] [URL=""]Bitcoinwisdom - Difficulty[/URL] [URL=""]Bitcoin Network Graphs[/URL]
[SIZE="4"][B]Charting y cotizaciones: [/B][/SIZE] [URL=""]Bitcoinwisdom[/URL] [URL=""]Bitcoinity[/URL] [URL=""]TradingView - Bitcoin[/URL] [URL=""]Coinorama[/URL] [URL=""]Bitcoin Charts[/URL] - [COLOR="SlateGray"]Historical data completa[/COLOR] [URL=""][/URL] [URL=""]Pizza Charts[/URL] [URL=""]BFXdata[/URL] [URL=""]Bitcoin Analytics[/URL] [url][/url]
[U]-.nuevos_2016:[/U] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] ** ,muy interesante [url][/url] [url][/url] [url=]Satoshi Converter[/url] *Para saber el cálculo en usd/eur en unidades menores al Bitcoin. [url][/url] *Para saber el cálculo entre fiat-cryptomonedas
[SIZE="4"][B]Noticias: [/B][/SIZE] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url] [url][/url]
[B]Exchanges[/B] [URL=""]Bitstamp[/URL] - [COLOR="SlateGray"]SEPA[/COLOR] [URL=""]BTC-e[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]SEPA[/COLOR] [URL=""]Kraken[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]SEPA[/COLOR] [URL=""]Gemini[/URL] - [COLOR="SlateGray"]USA[/COLOR] [URL=""]Coinsetter[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]USA[/COLOR] [URL=""]Coinbase Exchange[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]USA[/COLOR] [URL=""]OKCoin[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]China[/COLOR] [URL=""]Huobi[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]China[/COLOR] [URL=""]Bitfinex[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]Hong Kong[/COLOR] Mas..[url][/url]
[B]Herramientas[/B] [URL=""]QTBitcoinTrader[/URL] [URL=""]Cryptotrader[/URL] - [COLOR="slategray"]Estrategias y bots para Quants[/COLOR] [URL=""]Fee Calculator[/URL] [URL=""]Alertas[/URL] [url][/url]
[B][SIZE="4"]Gurus de Bitcoin:[/SIZE][/B]
Andreas Antonopoulos Charlie Shrem Peter Thiel Arvin Narayand
[B][SIZE="4"]Cursos:[/SIZE][/B] -. [url][/url] (paper sobre una sidechain que servirá para incluir un sistema descentralizado de oráculos en Bitcoin.) In-depth Udemy Course(over 8 hours of video tutorials) -. [url][/url] Coursera Cryptocurrency Course(61 videos in 11 sections) -.[url][/url] Khan Academy Bitcoin Course(9 ~10 minute videos) -.[url][/url] Bitcoin 101 Blackboard Series(over 7 hours of video tutorials) -. [url][/url] Introduction to Bitcoin(3 hour course available via free trial) -. [url][/url] Introduction toDigital Currency - MOOC offered by University of Nicosia -. [url][/url]
[B][SIZE="4"]Deep Dive Technical Resources: (pá los valientes):[/SIZE][/B] Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency Technologies (Princeton's 300 page textbook) [url][/url] Bitcoin Developer Guide [url][/url] Bitcoin Ninja [url][/url] Bitcoin Protocol Specification [url][/url] Epic List of Research Papers [url][/url] How the Bitcoin Protocol Actually Works [url][/url] Mastering Bitcoin [url][/url] Epic List of Bitcoin Books [url][/url] Epic List of Many Blockchain Books [url][/url] Programming the Blockchain in C# [url][/url]
[B][SIZE="4"]Documentales:[/SIZE][/B] Bitcoin Films [url][/url] Bitcoin in Uganda BrRXP1tp6Kw Inside Man with Morgan Spurlock [url][/url] Life on Bitcoin [url][/url] Life Inside a Secret Chinese Bitcoin Mine K8kua5B5K3I The Bitcoin Doco [url][/url] The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin [url][/url]
[B][SIZE="4"]otras cosas de este año 2016:[/SIZE][/B] [url][/url]
[url][/url] is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin like a dollar bill. Pass it along multiple times. Connect to any USB to check balance. Unseal anytime to spend online. Trust no one.
[url][/url] It can be used to split any "secret" (i.e. a password, text file, Bitcoin private key, anything) into n number of "shares" (each the same size in bits as the original secret), requiring that exactly any number t ("threshold") of them be present to reconstruct the original secret.
[U]Compra rapida Por Claudius:[/U]
Y por ultimo:
[I]P.D1:*¿que puede pasar si se amplia el Tamaño de Bloque?[/I] [url][/url]
P.D2:[url][/url] [I](primer ejemplo de lightning_network)[/I]
explicacion del video anterior: [SPOILER]Todo lo hace en la testchain de Bitcoin. Abre un canal con 0'04 testcoins y efectua el pago de 10000 milisatoshis para comprar la ya famosa imagen de los gatitos viendo la luna.
No hay transacción de vuelta, es símplemente un pago que se ha realizado a través del canal que habían abierto.
En la blockchain (en realidad, en la testchain, puesto que se está utilizando la cadena de bloques para pruebas que tiene Bitcoin) se ha realizado una transacción, que es la transacción necesaria que hay que hacer para establecer el canal.
La transacción de compra de la imagen (la de los 10000 milisatoshis) es la que se hace fuera de la cadena de bloques.
A ver, el canal se establece por un importe de 0'04 bitcoins (testcoins, en realidad). Una vez realizada la transacción de 10000 milibitcoins en la lightning network, el balance de ese canal cambia a 0'04 bitcoins - 10000 milibitcoins.
Pero lo bueno del asunto es que el canal de pagos es bidireccional y, se supone, que formará parte de una red (la lightning network) de manera que el balance se irá reajustando conforme las transacciones de la red vayan necesitando hacer uso de dicho del canal de pago que has abierto.
Cuando cualquiera de las dos partes decida cerrar el canal, entonces el balance que contenga en ese instante será el que se fijará en la cadena de bloques.
Las transacciones que emplean el canal de pago son "off blockchain", esto es, se realizan sin necesidad de ser reflejadas en la cadena de bloques. La única transacción que ha necesitado utilizar la cadena de bloques es la necesaria para crear el canal.
El canal no se ha cerrado, ha permanecido abierto.[/SPOILER] P.D 3:
P.D 4: Los iré añadiendo poco a poco que son un huevo: [url][/url]
submitted by sirpask to btces [link] [comments]

Zeus/Gaw ASIC Setup Guide for Linux/Raspberry Pi

So I recently I became quite interested in mining and cyptocurrencies in general. So interested in fact that I bit the bullet and decided to buy myself a GAW Fury.
I then spent some time doing research on how to set up a GAW or Zeus ASIC on Linux, in particular on a Raspberry Pi, and have found most guides to be awful. The reason they are so bad IMHO is that they assume quite a bit of prior knowledge, either with Linux or mining, and give very little instructions. So I have tried to put together a guide that requires very little prior knowledge.
It is my aim that anyone could get their shiny new asic up and mining in no time using this guide. Anyway, I present...

The Complete Noobs Guide to Setting Up a Zeus or Gaw ASIC on Debian/Ubuntu/Raspberry Pi


About Cyrptocurrencies and Their Jargon

If you are new to cryptocurrencies and how they work I suggest taking a look at this series of KhanAcademy videos. They are for Bitcoin but the theory is the same. I found them very helpful when it came to understanding what mining actually does and the mechanics of cyrptocurrencies.
Also take a look at sircamm22 his info found here, is great and breaks down a large number of concepts. I slightly disagree with no. 21 regarding preordering. Just exercise common sense.


If you are new to Linux you could follow along by simply typing in the commands. However I highly recommend taking the time to learn what you are doing. This course is a great place to start.

Computer Setup

By the end of this section you will have your device turned on, fully setup and connected to the internet with.
Note: Commands to be typed into the command line will be displayed like this:
echo Hello World


For laptops and desktops already running Ubuntu or Debian I will assume you have setup your internet setup as part of the installation.
If not: There are plenty of guides out there and the installation/setup process is very easy. A good place to start for Ubuntu is here.
Now open up a terminal window. Ctrl + alt + t on a standard Ubuntu installation.
If you plan on using this PC without a monitor I would suggest installing an SSH Server.
These commands will be discussed later on in the guide.
sudo apt-get -y install openssh-server
sudo service openssh-server start

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi Foundation has put together a great guide in PDF format.
Use NOOBS it will save you a lot of trouble. NB: Some SD cards don't support NOOBs but will work fine if the image is put on using a different method.
Here is a great guide for setting up the Raspberry Pi SD card from In fact it's a great place to start for anything RPi related. Raspberry Pi hub at Elinux.
Once the SD card is setup you will need to insert it into the Raspberry Pi and boot. Install Raspbian from the NOOBs menu and wait.
Follow this guide by Adafruit for first time setup. You will need to enable SSH Server.
I suggest not starting the desktop on boot. It can be easily run from the command line by typing startx.
Follow this guide by Adafruit to setup your network. Found here. No need to do this if you set up previously in the first time config.
We will also at this point want to setup ssh. Again I will point you to an Adafruit guide.
Once done exit back to a standard command line interface. This can be done in LXDE by using the power off menu located in the bottom right corner.

Miner Setup

Installing BFGMiner

If you want to the Raspberry Pi or PC without a monitor go ahead and SSH into your device.
So now you should be staring at a command line interface whether on the device with a monitor or via SSH.
First things first lets make sure we are all up to date. This will update our package list from the repositories and upgrade them to the newest version. "-y" Will simply say yes to any prompts.
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get -y upgrade
We are going to need to install some useful tools. Git-core is how we will clone and download BFGMiner from GitHub and Screen allows multiple command line instances and means if we exit out of ssh session or quit Terminal on Ubuntu, BFGMiner will continue to run.
sudo apt-get install git-core screen
We also need to download some other tools/dependencies to ensure that BFGMiner will compile successfully.
sudo apt-get -y install build-essential autoconf automake libtool pkg-config libcurl4-gnutls-dev libjansson-dev uthash-dev libncursesw5-dev libudev-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev libevent-dev libmicrohttpd-dev libc-bin
Ok now change into your home directory.
cd ~
And clone BFGMiner by Darkwinde.
git clone
Once the download has completed move into the bfgminer directory.
cd bfgminer
The following steps may take a while.
Now run
sudo ./
You will need to make the configure script execuitable.
sudo chmod +x ./configure
Now configure bfgminer
sudo ./configure CFLAGS="-O3" --enable-scrypt
Now lets make!
sudo make
Install BFGMiner
sudo make install
One more thing...
sudo ldconfig

Running BFGMiner

If you haven't already plug in your ASIC.
Just confirm your system is recognising the ASIC.
Its output should look similar to this (no need to type this in):
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 10c4:ea60 Cygnal Integrated Products, Inc. CP210x UART Bridge / myAVR mySmartUSB light
Yep there it is our ASIC listed as device 005. There is no need to install any drivers, unlike in windows, as they come in the kernel.
Now lets actually start BFGMiner.
You will want to start a screen session to ensure BFGMiner doesn't quite when you exit.
"-S" is the option for starting a new screen session. You can replace "miner" with anything you like.
screen -S miner
Now you can run the commands below.
Here is a sample of what you should type. You will need to replace somethings with your own values.
sudo bfgminer --scrypt -o stratum+tcp://URL:PORT -u USERNAME -p PASSWORD --zeus-cc CHIPCOUNT --zeus-clk 328 -S zeus:/dev/ttyUSB0
URL:PORT is the address and port of the pool you wih to use. Now I won't suggest a pool. I will leave that decision up to you. If you do wish to mine DOGE take a look at this site for a list of pools and comparisons.
USERNAME this is the username you use on the pool. Every pool is different. Check your pool's website for details. PASSWORD same as above. Specific to your pool, not every pool requires one.
CHIPCOUNT this is specific to which ASIC you are using.
For GAWMiner ASIC's:
  • War Machine: 256
  • Falcon: 128
  • Black Widow: 64
  • Fury: 6
For ZeusMiner ASIC's:
  • Blizzard: 6
  • Cyclone: 96
  • Hurricane X2: 48
  • Hurricane X3: 64
  • Thunder X2: 96
  • Thunder X3: 128
Now to make sure you don't stop mining when you exit ssh or terminal. Press:
ctrl + a + d
To come back to the BFGMiner screen simply run:
screen -r miner
You're done!!

Start on Boot

First off you will want to make sure you have BFGMiner running correctly. Ensure you have the miners set up properly and your pool correctly configured.
Start a BFGMiner instance, detailed above.
Once the instance has started and you are happy with how everything is working press "s" on your keyboard to enter the settings menu.
Now press the "w" key. Don't press enter. We want to specify where our config will go. Type:
Substitute USERNAME for your user. On a standard RPI install its pi. On ubuntu it's what you set during the instillation.
Now press the enter key to return back to the main BFGMiner screen. Press "q" on your keyboard to exit BFGMiner. You should now be back in the command line.
Now we want to edit a file called rc.local. Any commands in this file will be executed on boot.
sudo nano /etc/rc.local
Depending on your system this file may already contain some commands. Be careful not to delete them.
After the last command and before "exit 0" type the following on one line:
sudo -u USERNAME screen -d -m sudo bfgminer --config /home/USERNAME/bfgminer.conf
Where USERNAME = your username
Hit ctrl + x then y to save and exit nano.
The above command will create a new screen session and run bfgminer using the config we created earlier. All while as our username so that we can easily reattach.
Lets reboot to ensure it is working correctly:
sudo reboot
Once rebooted and logged in, show all running screen sessions:
screen -ls
Reattach to the session. You only need to use the numbers before the first dot.
e.g Mine looks like: 2480..hostname (13/07/14 12:02:09) (Detached). So I type:
screen -r 2480
Verify everything worked as expected. Then ctrl + a + d to exit.
You have now setup BFGMiner to restart on reboot.

Power Failure

If you are using a Raspberry Pi and it loses power it will automatically reboot on receiving power again.
For standard desktop PCs there is an option in some BIOS/UEFI to turn the computer on when it receives power. Consult your motherboard's manual and manufacturer's website.


Here is where I got my info from.
And of course /dogemining

Wrap Up

Congrats you've done it. You have managed to successfully get your shiny new asic mining away.
I do plan to make another guide detailing how to setup and use StarMiner a ready to go RPi mining distro.
So I hope this is helpful for you guys. I have seen lots of posts asking the exact same questions again and again and I have tried to answer these as best I can. I am still learning about this stuff so if there is something I have missed or a mistake I have made please tell me.
Anyway good luck. And I'll see you at the moon.
Cheers Frogsiedoodle
Edit 1: Layout and formatting.
Edit 2: Added instructions for screen which I initially forgot.
Edit 3: Removed 1 unneeded dependency
Edit 4: Added section on start on reboot and power failure.
submitted by Frogsiedoodle to dogemining [link] [comments]

NTWK FAQ - About the Project

Welcome to ntwk, an eLearning platform designed to bring cryptocurrency adoption to the masses. With our interactive learning platform which will consist of guides, how-tos, and video courses, we can allow the average joe to step ahead of the curve and bring crypto into their life.
What exactly is the ntwk token project?
The ntwk token project is an awareness project that is fueled by the power of social media. The ntwk project plans to launch the Network Learning eLearning platform.
Why was ntwk created?
The ntwk project came into existence when three colleagues decided to spread the idea of cryptocurrency at their job. After countless hours of explaining and receiving responses like "I want to get involved but I don't know how", the ntwk project seemed like an obvious undertaking.
How is ntwk going to help people learn?
The ntwk project has secured to be the official eLearning platform for cryptocurrency. With inspiration from other learning projects such as the Khan Academy and Code Academy, the ntwk team will be designing a platform from the ground up which will be intuitive, yet extremely simple so that anyone may jump into it and learn the ins-and-outs of cryptocurrency buying, selling, trading, and even mining.
Where can I get ntwk token?
Currently ntwk token is being given out as a reward for social awareness through social media campaigns. Our goal is to slowly circulate our market supply to cryptocurrency enthusiasts who spread the word of our upcoming eLearning Platform – We expect our bounties to last for a year before converting to a reward-based system within the learning platform. Once converted, ntwk tokens will be given out as a reward after users finish their first successful tutorial on the eLearning platform. Alternatively, ntwk token may be purchased on Ether Delta.
What can I use ntwk token for?
ntwk Token will be used for premium learning, one-on-one support, and services offered by the ntwk team including programming on the Ethereum blockchain or token creation services (yes, we can help you create your very own token).
Will I have to pay to learn?
We will have an extensive database of guides, tutorials, videos, and how-tos which will be accessible for absolutely FREE! We plan to get as many people into cryptocurrency as possible and our first education projects will include interactive classes on how to create an Ethereum wallet, Send & Receive Ethereum, and sending and receiving ERC20 tokens.
Why don't you support Bitcoin?
Although we believe Bitcoin is an incredible project in itself, we are trying to expand the adoption of the very versatile Ethereum blockchain. We will absolutely have some space dedicated for education on Bitcoin as well.
Do you guys have a roadmap? Absolutely, please see below:
Do you guys have any other plans?
To help aid in the education area, ntwk plans to be extremely active in blockchain development. We understand that the average user prefers their mobile phone over a desktop so one project we plan to peruse is an open source mobile wallet. Our wallet would be completely client side and leave the private keys directly under the users’ control. The wallet would be accompanied by our personalized guides on how to use it.
What have you guys accomplished so far?
In just a very short week in existence, we have been officially listed on Coinmarketcap, Etherdelta, and supported with our logo on Blockfolio.
*What is the max supply? * The max supply is 50 million tokens. Circulation plan: 40 million through bountie and rewards as mentioned above. Roughly 10 million has been put into circulation before this announcement.
Who are you guys? For those of you in the telegram, you have gotten to know us already but here is a quick overview of us (all in the telegram)
Jesse Lead developer for ntwk. Full Stack Web Developer (HTML/PHP/JS/CSS) with experience in Java, C++. Non Technical Experience: PR & Marketing, Some Design Experience
Sherwin Strategy and IT Operations for NTWK Business Intelligence Analyst/Integration Architect with experience in Systems Orchestration Non Technical Experience: Desktop Publishing and Design
Andreas Social media marketing manager (TwitteFacebook/YouTube/Instagram) with experience in Search Engine Optimization and content creation. Full-hearted inbound marketer.
submitted by ntwkio to ntwk [link] [comments]

Probability in Bitcoin Mining: The Hashing Function What are Bitcoins? What is a Bitcoin? Help! A beginner's guide to Bitcoins Introduction to Bitcoin Blockchain Algorithm - YouTube

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Probability in Bitcoin Mining: The Hashing Function

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